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Child-Maltreatment-Research-L (CMRL) List Serve

Database of Past CMRL Messages

Welcome to the database of past Child-Maltreatment-Research-L (CMRL) list serve messages. The table below contains all past CMRL messages (text only, no attachments) from Nov. 20, 1996 - March 6, 2018 and is updated quarterly.

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Message ID: 9770
Date: 2015-01-20

Author:wendy.hovdestadphac-aspc.gc.ca

Subject:RE: Computer-assisted telephone interviewing for CM or other sensitive topics?

Dear List members, I asked about a research method where a live interviewer was replaced by a computerized voice during a telephone survey module asking about child maltreatment or any other sensitive topic. Many thanks for so many helpful responses, both on and off-list! Below please find a brief summary of the information I received. I’m happy to discuss or clarify if that would be helpful. With gratitude for this helpful e-community, Wendy The abstracts of three helpful articles that are new to me are copied below. Kepplea et al. 2014 used computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) and interactive voice response (IVR) to ask caregivers in California about their own abusive and neglectful parenting behaviours, and suggest IVR’s utility for future study of such behaviours. Turner et al 2005 studied the impact of telephone audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (T-ACASI) on rates of reporting sensitive drug and alcohol use information. Reporting of recent use of 'harder' drugs was increased when interviewed by T-ACASI rather than by human telephone interviews. Theodore et al 2005 conducted telephone surveys with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina (N = 1435) and found that 4.3% reported physical abuse. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. Bridget Freisthler noted: “I've used interactive voice response (IVR) to ask sensitive child maltreatment questions as part of a larger CATI survey. In my study, we did not have the respondent go back to the live interviewer after the IVR section was complete for confidentiality and reporting reasons. However, my colleagues in the alcohol field have used a live interviewer, transitioned to IVR (largely for sexual risk-taking behaviors) and then back to a live interviewer. That is approach is definitely possible and I can point you to a survey research firm that does that.” Ruby Guillen suggested: “use technological protocols to scrub the data points so that the data remains confidential and/or create the Q/A in such a way that confidentially is not breached from the get-go. In addition, you can have a written clause that stipulates that the researcher would not gain any knowledge of the respondents’ answers to sensitive questions. In terms of aggregating data points, you can have a Likert scale (or similar tools) that tabulates the answers in real-time. There are other avenues to do this through tech - including mobile phones.” Someone that I got an off list answer from noted that RTI has done multiple studies with T-ACASI sections. I believe the Turner et al. study is one example. In this method, interviewer assistance is available at the press of a key. Similarly, it was noted that there was a similar technique for the National Study of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW) with field laptops (self-interview using headphones to hear questions while the screen was blank). Abstracts Nancy J. Kepplea, Bridget Freisthlera, Michelle Johnson-Motoyamab. Bias in child maltreatment self-reports using interactive voice response (IVR). Child Abuse & Neglect Volume 38, Issue 10, October 2014, Pages 1694–1705 Few methods estimate the prevalence of child maltreatment in the general population due to concerns about socially desirable responding and mandated reporting laws. Innovative methods, such as interactive voice response (IVR), may obtain better estimates that address these concerns. This study examined the utility of interactive voice response (IVR) for child maltreatment behaviors by assessing differences between respondents who completed and did not complete a survey using IVR technology. A mixed-mode telephone survey was conducted in English and Spanish in 50 cities in California during 2009. Caregivers (n = 3,023) self-reported abusive and neglectful parenting behaviors for a focal child under the age of 13 using computer-assisted telephone interviewing and IVR. We used hierarchical generalized linear models to compare survey completion by caregivers nested within cities for the full sample and age-specific ranges. For demographic characteristics, caregivers born in the United States were more likely to complete the survey when controlling for covariates. Parenting stress, provision of physical needs, and provision of supervisory needs were not associated with survey completion in the full multivariate model. For caregivers of children 0–4 years (n = 838), those reporting they could often or always hear their child from another room had a higher likelihood of survey completion. The findings suggest IVR could prove to be useful for future surveys that aim to estimate abusive and/or neglectful parenting behaviors given the limited bias observed for demographic characteristics and problematic parenting behaviors. Further research should expand upon its utility to advance estimation rates. Turner, C.F., Villarroel, M.A., Rogers, S.M., Eggleston, E., Ganapathi, L., Roman, A.M., & Al-Tayyib, A. (2005). Reducing bias in telephone survey estimates of the prevalence of drug use: a randomized trial of telephone audio-CASI. Addiction, 100 (10):1432-1444. Aim To assess the impact of telephone audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (T-ACASI) on reporting of alcohol use, alcohol problems and illicit drug use in telephone surveys of the general population. Prior research suggests that illicit drug use is underreported in traditional, interviewer-administered, telephone surveys. Design Randomized experiment embedded in telephone survey of probability samples of populations of USA and Baltimore, MD. Survey respondents were randomly assigned to be interviewed either by human telephone interviewers or by T-ACASI after household screening, recruitment, and informed consent procedures were completed. Setting Respondents were interviewed by telephone in their homes. Participants Probability samples of 1543 English-speaking adults ages 18-45 residing in telephone-accessible households in USA and 744 similarly defined adults residing in Baltimore, MD, USA. Measurements Nine questions on alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and injection drug use adapted from 1994 NHSDA and four CAGE questions on alcohol problems. Crude odds ratios and odds ratios controlling for demographic factors calculated to test for differences between responses obtained by T-ACASI and human interviewers. Findings T-ACASI had mixed effects on reporting of alcohol use, but it did increase reporting of one of four CAGE alcohol problems: feeling guilty about drinking (23.0% in T-ACASI vs. 17.6% in T-IAQ, OR = 1.4, P < 0.01). T-ACASI also obtained significantly more frequent reporting of marijuana, cocaine, and injection drug use. The impact of T-ACASI was most pronounced for reporting of recent use of 'harder' drugs. Thus T-ACASI respondents were more likely to report marijuana use in the past month (10.0% vs. 5.7%, crude OR = 1.9, P < 0.001), cocaine use in the past month (2.1% vs. 0.7%, crude 3.2, P < 0.001) and injection drug use in the past five years (1.6% vs. 0.3%, crude OR = 4.8, P < 0.01). Conclusion Telephone survey respondents were more likely to report illicit drug use and one alcohol problem when interviewed by T-ACASI rather than by human telephone interviews. PEDIATRICS Vol. 115 No. 3 March 2005, pp. e331-e337 (doi:10.1542/peds.2004-1033). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas Adrea D. Theodore, MD, MPH*, Jen Jen Chang, MPH‡, Desmond K. Runyan, MD, DrPH*§‖, Wanda M. Hunter, MPH§‖, Shrikant I. Bangdiwala, PhD‖¶, Robert Agans, PhD¶ Abstract Context. Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment. Wendy E. Hovdestad, Ph.D. Senior Research Analyst , Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention Branch Child Maltreatment Surveillance Section Public Health Agency of Canada / Government of Canada Injury and Child Maltreatment Section Wendy.Hovdestad@phac-aspc.gc.ca / Tel: (613) 941-9467 Section des blessures et de la violence envers les enfants Centre de prévention et de contrôle des maladies chroniques Agence de la santé publique du Canada / Gouvernement du Canada Wendy.Hovdestad@phac-aspc.gc.ca / Tél: (613) 941-9467

Dear List members, I asked about a research method where a live interviewer was replaced by a computerized voice during a telephone survey module asking about child maltreatment or any other sensitive topic. Many thanks for so many helpful responses, both on and off-list! Below please find a brief summary of the information I received. I’m happy to discuss or clarify if that would be helpful. With gratitude for this helpful e-community, Wendy The abstracts of three helpful articles that are new to me are copied below. Kepplea et al. 2014 used computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) and interactive voice response (IVR) to ask caregivers in California about their own abusive and neglectful parenting behaviours, and suggest IVR’s utility for future study of such behaviours. Turner et al 2005 studied the impact of telephone audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (T-ACASI) on rates of reporting sensitive drug and alcohol use information. Reporting of recent use of 'harder' drugs was increased when interviewed by T-ACASI rather than by human telephone interviews. Theodore et al 2005 conducted telephone surveys with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina (N = 1435) and found that 4.3% reported physical abuse. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. Bridget Freisthler noted: “I've used interactive voice response (IVR) to ask sensitive child maltreatment questions as part of a larger CATI survey. In my study, we did not have the respondent go back to the live interviewer after the IVR section was complete for confidentiality and reporting reasons. However, my colleagues in the alcohol field have used a live interviewer, transitioned to IVR (largely for sexual risk-taking behaviors) and then back to a live interviewer. That is approach is definitely possible and I can point you to a survey research firm that does that.” Ruby Guillen suggested: “use technological protocols to scrub the data points so that the data remains confidential and/or create the Q/A in such a way that confidentially is not breached from the get-go. In addition, you can have a written clause that stipulates that the researcher would not gain any knowledge of the respondents’ answers to sensitive questions. In terms of aggregating data points, you can have a Likert scale (or similar tools) that tabulates the answers in real-time. There are other avenues to do this through tech - including mobile phones.” Someone that I got an off list answer from noted that RTI has done multiple studies with T-ACASI sections. I believe the Turner et al. study is one example. In this method, interviewer assistance is available at the press of a key. Similarly, it was noted that there was a similar technique for the National Study of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW) with field laptops (self-interview using headphones to hear questions while the screen was blank). Abstracts Nancy J. Kepplea, Bridget Freisthlera, Michelle Johnson-Motoyamab. Bias in child maltreatment self-reports using interactive voice response (IVR). Child Abuse & Neglect Volume 38, Issue 10, October 2014, Pages 1694–1705 Few methods estimate the prevalence of child maltreatment in the general population due to concerns about socially desirable responding and mandated reporting laws. Innovative methods, such as interactive voice response (IVR), may obtain better estimates that address these concerns. This study examined the utility of interactive voice response (IVR) for child maltreatment behaviors by assessing differences between respondents who completed and did not complete a survey using IVR technology. A mixed-mode telephone survey was conducted in English and Spanish in 50 cities in California during 2009. Caregivers (n = 3,023) self-reported abusive and neglectful parenting behaviors for a focal child under the age of 13 using computer-assisted telephone interviewing and IVR. We used hierarchical generalized linear models to compare survey completion by caregivers nested within cities for the full sample and age-specific ranges. For demographic characteristics, caregivers born in the United States were more likely to complete the survey when controlling for covariates. Parenting stress, provision of physical needs, and provision of supervisory needs were not associated with survey completion in the full multivariate model. For caregivers of children 0–4 years (n = 838), those reporting they could often or always hear their child from another room had a higher likelihood of survey completion. The findings suggest IVR could prove to be useful for future surveys that aim to estimate abusive and/or neglectful parenting behaviors given the limited bias observed for demographic characteristics and problematic parenting behaviors. Further research should expand upon its utility to advance estimation rates. Turner, C.F., Villarroel, M.A., Rogers, S.M., Eggleston, E., Ganapathi, L., Roman, A.M., & Al-Tayyib, A. (2005). Reducing bias in telephone survey estimates of the prevalence of drug use: a randomized trial of telephone audio-CASI. Addiction, 100 (10):1432-1444. Aim To assess the impact of telephone audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (T-ACASI) on reporting of alcohol use, alcohol problems and illicit drug use in telephone surveys of the general population. Prior research suggests that illicit drug use is underreported in traditional, interviewer-administered, telephone surveys. Design Randomized experiment embedded in telephone survey of probability samples of populations of USA and Baltimore, MD. Survey respondents were randomly assigned to be interviewed either by human telephone interviewers or by T-ACASI after household screening, recruitment, and informed consent procedures were completed. Setting Respondents were interviewed by telephone in their homes. Participants Probability samples of 1543 English-speaking adults ages 18-45 residing in telephone-accessible households in USA and 744 similarly defined adults residing in Baltimore, MD, USA. Measurements Nine questions on alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and injection drug use adapted from 1994 NHSDA and four CAGE questions on alcohol problems. Crude odds ratios and odds ratios controlling for demographic factors calculated to test for differences between responses obtained by T-ACASI and human interviewers. Findings T-ACASI had mixed effects on reporting of alcohol use, but it did increase reporting of one of four CAGE alcohol problems: feeling guilty about drinking (23.0% in T-ACASI vs. 17.6% in T-IAQ, OR = 1.4, P < 0.01). T-ACASI also obtained significantly more frequent reporting of marijuana, cocaine, and injection drug use. The impact of T-ACASI was most pronounced for reporting of recent use of 'harder' drugs. Thus T-ACASI respondents were more likely to report marijuana use in the past month (10.0% vs. 5.7%, crude OR = 1.9, P < 0.001), cocaine use in the past month (2.1% vs. 0.7%, crude 3.2, P < 0.001) and injection drug use in the past five years (1.6% vs. 0.3%, crude OR = 4.8, P < 0.01). Conclusion Telephone survey respondents were more likely to report illicit drug use and one alcohol problem when interviewed by T-ACASI rather than by human telephone interviews. PEDIATRICS Vol. 115 No. 3 March 2005, pp. e331-e337 (doi:10.1542/peds.2004-1033). Epidemiologic Features of the Physical and Sexual Maltreatment of Children in the Carolinas Adrea D. Theodore, MD, MPH*, Jen Jen Chang, MPH‡, Desmond K. Runyan, MD, DrPH*§‖, Wanda M. Hunter, MPH§‖, Shrikant I. Bangdiwala, PhD‖¶, Robert Agans, PhD¶ Abstract Context. Child maltreatment remains a significant public health and social problem in the United States. Incidence data rely on substantiated reports of maltreatment known to official social service agencies. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic features of child physical and sexual abuse, on the basis of maternal self-reports. Design, Setting, and Participants. Computer-assisted, anonymous, cross-sectional, telephone surveys (N = 1435) were conducted with mothers of children 0 to 17 years of age in North and South Carolina. Mothers were asked about potentially abusive behaviors used by either themselves or their husbands or partners in the context of other disciplinary practices. They were also asked about their knowledge of any sexual victimization their children might have experienced. Main Outcome Measures. The incidence of physical and sexual maltreatment determined through maternal reports. Results. Use of harsh physical discipline, equivalent to physical abuse, occurred with an incidence of 4.3%. Shaking of very young children as a means of discipline occurred among 2.6% of children <2 years of age. Mothers reported more frequent physical discipline of their children, including shaking, for themselves than for fathers or father figures. Nearly 11 of 1000 children were reported by their mothers as having been sexually victimized within the past year. The incidence of physical abuse determined with maternal self-reports was 40 times greater than that of official child physical abuse reports, and the sexual abuse incidence was 15 times greater. For every 1 child who sustains a serious injury as a result of shaking, an estimated 150 children may be shaken and go undetected. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall rates of physical or sexual maltreatment between the 2 states. Conclusions. Official statistics underestimate the burden of child maltreatment. Supplemental data obtained with alternative strategies can assist policymakers and planners in addressing needs and services within communities and states. These data support the need for continued interventions to prevent maltreatment. Wendy E. Hovdestad, Ph.D. Senior Research Analyst , Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention Branch Child Maltreatment Surveillance Section Public Health Agency of Canada / Government of Canada Injury and Child Maltreatment Section Wendy.Hovdestadphac-aspc.gc.ca / Tel: (613) 941-9467 Section des blessures et de la violence envers les enfants Centre de prévention et de contrôle des maladies chroniques Agence de la santé publique du Canada / Gouvernement du Canada Wendy.Hovdestadphac-aspc.gc.ca / Tél: (613) 941-9467