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Child-Maltreatment-Research-L (CMRL) List Serve

Database of Past CMRL Messages

Welcome to the database of past Child-Maltreatment-Research-L (CMRL) list serve messages. The table below contains all past CMRL messages (text only, no attachments) from Nov. 20, 1996 - December 22, 2017 and is updated quarterly.

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Message ID: 9389
Date: 2013-03-05

Author:Chaffin, Mark J. (HSC)

Subject:RE: Poverty rates and race

This was not published data. Just a quick cross-tab from one of the data sets I had lying around. Would be good to see what there might be with NSCAW data, for example. But, I think it illustrates a fairly common finding relevant to your question of “are black youth (families) in CW more poor than white youth (families) in CW?” Often, the answer is—“Not in any hugely meaningful way. In CW, most everyone is so poor that this fact just dominates everything else.” In other words, the income distribution among CW samples has limited variability and is concentrated in a narrow band compared to the general population. Low income is the dominant characteristic of families in CW (check the NIS or Children’s Bureau reports for example). The odds ratios for poverty/middle-class predicting CW entry/not in some of these analyses have been on the order of 40, which in terms of an effect size label is something we don’t really even have a word for. Beyond massive might be the closest label. So, it might be interesting to refine the research question here, away from “are there poverty differences between races in CW” to something more along the lines of: “how deep is the poverty among black vs. white families in CW?” or “Are there dimensions of poverty different between groups—e.g. food insufficiency?” For example, among some racial groups there are differences in the dimensions of poverty among CW families (e.g. American Indian families in CW are equally as poor as other groups, but have relatively better….and relative is the key word…..access to adult health care). The other issue with this question is that income alone may not fully operationalize the poverty construct in which we are interested. Poverty may be more than only a lack of income. Some people can be poor in terms of income, but have abundant social resources and standing in their local community. So, tangible and social capitol may be important to consider along with income in defining disadvantage. Here is an interesting table from NIS-4 analysis of race disparities (http://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/opre/nis4_supp_analysis_race_diff_mar2010.pdf) , which shows just how big the population disparities are—and have remained--between black vs. white families. These are the black-white disparities that you don’t see so strongly in CW, but you definitely see in the general population. MC Table 1–1. Differences in Percentages of White and Black Children With Specific Family Risk Conditions, 1993 and 2006. Family Characteristic 1993 2006 % of White Children % of Black Children % of White Children % of Black Children Family Structure Two parents 79.1 35.3 75.9 34.5 Single parent 19.3 57.3 20.8 56.1 No parent 1.5 7.3 3.2 9.4 Single parent with partnera 1.5 2.3 3.5 4.4 Single parent, no partner 17.8 55.1 17.3 51.6 Parents’ Employment Unemployed 16.4 18.8 8.5 12.4 Employed 76.8 51.0 84.2 65 Not in Labor Force 5.2 22.8 4.0 13.2 Family Size 1 child 23.1 21.1 24.5 24.2 2 children 43.4 31 41.8 33.8 3 children 22.6 24.2 22.6 21.2 4 or more children 10.9 23.8 11 20.7 Parents’ Education Less than high school 7.0 20.4 4.3 12.7 High school 29.5 36.7 20.4 30.0 Some college 29.9 24.7 29.0 28.3 College graduate 19.6 7.8 25.7 12.5 Advanced degree 12.5 3.1 17.5 6.5 Household Income <$15,000 15.7 52.5 8.9 29.8 $15,000-$24,999 12.6 16.1 6.7 17.1 $25,000-$39,999 21.4 13.6 11.9 17.0 $40,000-$54,999 20.0 9.0 13.2 10.8 $55,000-$74,999 16.1 4.8 16.5 10.3 $75,000-$99,999 8.0 2.8 15.6 7.5 >=$100,000 6.2 1.1 27.3 7.5 Other Economic Measures Low Socioeconomic Statusb 21.8 61.6 15.0 45.9 Household participates in poverty program 12.7 46.9 8.2 32.6 From: Jane Marshall [mailto:jane.marie.marshall@gmail.com] Sent: Monday, March 04, 2013 10:32 AM Subject: Re: Poverty rates and race Hello again, Are these results published somewhere? I noticed this article, Change Trajectories During Home-Based Services With Chronic Child Welfare Cases, but did not see the race comparisons. Thanks, Jane On Mon, Mar 4, 2013 at 10:25 AM, Jane Marshall > wrote: Dear Mark, Thanks very much for sharing! Jane On Tue, Feb 26, 2013 at 11:39 AM, Chaffin, Mark J. (HSC) > wrote: This table is from our n=2175 study of families in home based services. So, its not the entire child welfare population. However, it does illustrate one interesting phenomenon. That is that income disparities in the general population are less evident in the child welfare population. A substantial majority of child welfare families are poor, across ethnic groups. MC Demo 11 race * Below 2009 U.S. federal poverty line based on income and number supported Crosstabulation Below 2009 U.S. federal poverty line based on income and number supported Total .00 1.00 Demo 11 race African American Count 25 156 181 % within Demo 11 race 13.8% 86.2% 100.0% American Indian, Native American Count 65 252 317 % within Demo 11 race 20.5% 79.5% 100.0% Asian American Count 4 4 8 % within Demo 11 race 50.0% 50.0% 100.0% Hispanic American Count 14 81 95 % within Demo 11 race 14.7% 85.3% 100.0% White, not Hispanic Count 238 1086 1324 % within Demo 11 race 18.0% 82.0% 100.0% Other Count 8 37 45 % within Demo 11 race 17.8% 82.2% 100.0% Total Count 354 1616 1970 % within Demo 11 race 18.0% 82.0% 100.0% Mark Chaffin, PhD Professor of Pediatrics University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center P.O. Box 26901 Oklahoma City, OK (405) 271-8858 mark-chaffin@ouhsc.edu This message (including attachments) may contain information that is privileged, confidential or protected from disclosure. If you are not the intended recipient, you are hereby notified that dissemination, disclosure, copying, distribution or use of this message or any information contained in it is strictly prohibited. If you have received this message in error, please immediately notify the sender by reply e-mail and delete this message from your computer. Although we have taken steps to ensure that this e-mail and attachments are free from any virus, we advise that in keeping with good computing practice the recipient should ensure they are actually virus free. Illegitimi non carborundum From: Michael Durfee [mailto:michaeld55@aol.com ] Sent: Saturday, February 23, 2013 3:14 PM Subject: RE: Poverty rates and race This is from - http://www.childtrendsdatabank.org/?q=node/368 it deserves more response from us. Important question that receives little attention. Blacks die twice as often as whites in the first year of life from many causes. Some years I found the black infant homicide rate higher than that. My career in public health included episodic training in “cultural sensitivity”. That was of some value but incredibly incomplete for addressing black infant homicide. Do you have some references for the rest of us? Michael Michael Durfee MD ICAN National Center for Child Fatality Review Michaeld55@aol.com From: bounce-75376014-27571402@list.cornell.edu [mailto:bounce-75376014-27571402@list.cornell.edu] On Behalf Of Jane Marshall Sent: Friday, February 22, 2013 1:59 PM To: Child Maltreatment Researchers Subject: Poverty rates and race Could anyone offer some information on the following: Poverty rates of black child welfare youth? Poverty rates of white child welfare youth? Poverty rates of black delinquent youth? Poverty rates of white delinquent youth? While research shows that a high percentage of youth involved with the child welfare and juvenile justice system are extremely poor, I wonder whether black CW and black delinquent youth are any more poor than white CW and delinquent youth. Thanks for your help, Jane -- Jane Marie Marshall, PhD Post Doctoral Research Associate University of Minnesota School of Social Work http://www.cehd.umn.edu/SSW/g-s/ -- Jane Marie Marshall, PhD Post Doctoral Research Associate University of Minnesota School of Social Work http://www.cehd.umn.edu/SSW/g-s/ -- Jane Marie Marshall, PhD Post Doctoral Research Associate University of Minnesota School of Social Work http://www.cehd.umn.edu/SSW/g-s/

This was not published data. Just a quick cross-tab from one of the data sets I had lying around. Would be good to see what there might be with NSCAW data, for example. But, I think it illustrates a fairly common finding relevant to your question of “are black youth (families) in CW more poor than white youth (families) in CW?” Often, the answer is—“Not in any hugely meaningful way. In CW, most everyone is so poor that this fact just dominates everything else.” In other words, the income distribution among CW samples has limited variability and is concentrated in a narrow band compared to the general population. Low income is the dominant characteristic of families in CW (check the NIS or Children’s Bureau reports for example). The odds ratios for poverty/middle-class predicting CW entry/not in some of these analyses have been on the order of 40, which in terms of an effect size label is something we don’t really even have a word for. Beyond massive might be the closest label. So, it might be interesting to refine the research question here, away from “are there poverty differences between races in CW” to something more along the lines of: “how deep is the poverty among black vs. white families in CW?” or “Are there dimensions of poverty different between groups—e.g. food insufficiency?” For example, among some racial groups there are differences in the dimensions of poverty among CW families (e.g. American Indian families in CW are equally as poor as other groups, but have relatively better….and relative is the key word…..access to adult health care). The other issue with this question is that income alone may not fully operationalize the poverty construct in which we are interested. Poverty may be more than only a lack of income. Some people can be poor in terms of income, but have abundant social resources and standing in their local community. So, tangible and social capitol may be important to consider along with income in defining disadvantage. Here is an interesting table from NIS-4 analysis of race disparities (http://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/opre/nis4_supp_analysis_race_diff_mar2010.pdf) , which shows just how big the population disparities are—and have remained--between black vs. white families. These are the black-white disparities that you don’t see so strongly in CW, but you definitely see in the general population. MC Table 1–1. Differences in Percentages of White and Black Children With Specific Family Risk Conditions, 1993 and 2006. Family Characteristic 1993 2006 % of White Children % of Black Children % of White Children % of Black Children Family Structure Two parents 79.1 35.3 75.9 34.5 Single parent 19.3 57.3 20.8 56.1 No parent 1.5 7.3 3.2 9.4 Single parent with partnera 1.5 2.3 3.5 4.4 Single parent, no partner 17.8 55.1 17.3 51.6 Parents’ Employment Unemployed 16.4 18.8 8.5 12.4 Employed 76.8 51.0 84.2 65 Not in Labor Force 5.2 22.8 4.0 13.2 Family Size 1 child 23.1 21.1 24.5 24.2 2 children 43.4 31 41.8 33.8 3 children 22.6 24.2 22.6 21.2 4 or more children 10.9 23.8 11 20.7 Parents’ Education Less than high school 7.0 20.4 4.3 12.7 High school 29.5 36.7 20.4 30.0 Some college 29.9 24.7 29.0 28.3 College graduate 19.6 7.8 25.7 12.5 Advanced degree 12.5 3.1 17.5 6.5 Household Income <$15,000 15.7 52.5 8.9 29.8 $15,000-$24,999 12.6 16.1 6.7 17.1 $25,000-$39,999 21.4 13.6 11.9 17.0 $40,000-$54,999 20.0 9.0 13.2 10.8 $55,000-$74,999 16.1 4.8 16.5 10.3 $75,000-$99,999 8.0 2.8 15.6 7.5 >=$100,000 6.2 1.1 27.3 7.5 Other Economic Measures Low Socioeconomic Statusb 21.8 61.6 15.0 45.9 Household participates in poverty program 12.7 46.9 8.2 32.6 From: Jane Marshall [mailto:jane.marie.marshallgmail.com] Sent: Monday, March 04, 2013 10:32 AM Subject: Re: Poverty rates and race Hello again, Are these results published somewhere? I noticed this article, Change Trajectories During Home-Based Services With Chronic Child Welfare Cases, but did not see the race comparisons. Thanks, Jane On Mon, Mar 4, 2013 at 10:25 AM, Jane Marshall > wrote: Dear Mark, Thanks very much for sharing! Jane On Tue, Feb 26, 2013 at 11:39 AM, Chaffin, Mark J. (HSC) > wrote: This table is from our n=2175 study of families in home based services. So, its not the entire child welfare population. However, it does illustrate one interesting phenomenon. That is that income disparities in the general population are less evident in the child welfare population. A substantial majority of child welfare families are poor, across ethnic groups. MC Demo 11 race * Below 2009 U.S. federal poverty line based on income and number supported Crosstabulation Below 2009 U.S. federal poverty line based on income and number supported Total .00 1.00 Demo 11 race African American Count 25 156 181 % within Demo 11 race 13.8% 86.2% 100.0% American Indian, Native American Count 65 252 317 % within Demo 11 race 20.5% 79.5% 100.0% Asian American Count 4 4 8 % within Demo 11 race 50.0% 50.0% 100.0% Hispanic American Count 14 81 95 % within Demo 11 race 14.7% 85.3% 100.0% White, not Hispanic Count 238 1086 1324 % within Demo 11 race 18.0% 82.0% 100.0% Other Count 8 37 45 % within Demo 11 race 17.8% 82.2% 100.0% Total Count 354 1616 1970 % within Demo 11 race 18.0% 82.0% 100.0% Mark Chaffin, PhD Professor of Pediatrics University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center P.O. Box 26901 Oklahoma City, OK (405) 271-8858 mark-chaffinouhsc.edu This message (including attachments) may contain information that is privileged, confidential or protected from disclosure. If you are not the intended recipient, you are hereby notified that dissemination, disclosure, copying, distribution or use of this message or any information contained in it is strictly prohibited. If you have received this message in error, please immediately notify the sender by reply e-mail and delete this message from your computer. Although we have taken steps to ensure that this e-mail and attachments are free from any virus, we advise that in keeping with good computing practice the recipient should ensure they are actually virus free. Illegitimi non carborundum From: Michael Durfee [mailto:michaeld55aol.com ] Sent: Saturday, February 23, 2013 3:14 PM Subject: RE: Poverty rates and race This is from - http://www.childtrendsdatabank.org/?q=node/368 it deserves more response from us. Important question that receives little attention. Blacks die twice as often as whites in the first year of life from many causes. Some years I found the black infant homicide rate higher than that. My career in public health included episodic training in “cultural sensitivity”. That was of some value but incredibly incomplete for addressing black infant homicide. Do you have some references for the rest of us? Michael Michael Durfee MD ICAN National Center for Child Fatality Review Michaeld55aol.com From: bounce-75376014-27571402list.cornell.edu [mailto:bounce-75376014-27571402list.cornell.edu] On Behalf Of Jane Marshall Sent: Friday, February 22, 2013 1:59 PM To: Child Maltreatment Researchers Subject: Poverty rates and race Could anyone offer some information on the following: Poverty rates of black child welfare youth? Poverty rates of white child welfare youth? Poverty rates of black delinquent youth? Poverty rates of white delinquent youth? While research shows that a high percentage of youth involved with the child welfare and juvenile justice system are extremely poor, I wonder whether black CW and black delinquent youth are any more poor than white CW and delinquent youth. Thanks for your help, Jane -- Jane Marie Marshall, PhD Post Doctoral Research Associate University of Minnesota School of Social Work http://www.cehd.umn.edu/SSW/g-s/ -- Jane Marie Marshall, PhD Post Doctoral Research Associate University of Minnesota School of Social Work http://www.cehd.umn.edu/SSW/g-s/ -- Jane Marie Marshall, PhD Post Doctoral Research Associate University of Minnesota School of Social Work http://www.cehd.umn.edu/SSW/g-s/