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Message ID: 8521
Date: 2010-04-13

Author:Michelle Johnson

Subject:Re: child-maltreatment-research-l digest: April 12, 2010

The Bay Area Social Services Consortium at UC Berkeley conducted an extensive literature review on the outcomes of 58 parent education programs with families determined to be at-risk of child maltreatment and/or abusive or neglectful. The report, "Assessing Parent Education Programs for Families Involved with Child Welfare Services: Evidence and Implications," is located at http://www.bassc.net/html/research/projects_details.html More studies have come out since the 2006 publication. This report may be a helpful starting point in your search. -- Michelle A. Johnson, Ph.D., MSW Assistant Professor UCLA School of Public Affairs, Department of Social Welfare 3250 Public Affairs Building, Box 951656 Los Angeles, CA 90095-1656 Office: (310) 825-9661 Fax: (310) 206-7564 E-mail: maj@ucla.edu Child Maltreatment Researchers digest wrote: > CHILD-MALTREATMENT-RESEARCH-L Digest for Monday, April 12, 2010. > > 1. RE: Child Abuse Prevention Training > 2. RE: Child Abuse Prevention Training > > ---------------------------------------------------------------------- > > Subject: RE: Child Abuse Prevention Training > From: "Graham Vimpani" > Date: Mon, 12 Apr 2010 21:44:13 +1000 > X-Message-Number: 1 > > I know Triple P very well Susan, but the study showed a lower rate of > increase in child maltreatment rates in the intervention counties > compared to the control counties, and still does not address my question > with respect to its use in families where maltreatment has already > occurred, where I have yet to see evidence of effectiveness. > Graham > > >>>> Farruggia Susan 12/04/2010 08:26 am >>>> >>>> > Triple P is a multi-level program with effectiveness demonstrated at > all levels, including for child maltreatment. The CDC recently funded a > major trial in South Carolina in which country rates of maltreatment > were reduced. > From: bounce-5548407-12789975@list.cornell.edu > [mailto:bounce-5548407-12789975@list.cornell.edu] On Behalf Of > Chanelle M. Carlin > Sent: Friday, April 09, 2010 3:38 AM > To: Child Maltreatment Researchers > Subject: RE: Child Abuse Prevention Training > > > PCIT does have a proven track record in these circumstances, assuming > that the abuse has stopped and parents are willing to make real changes > in their parenting. Also, evidence for PCIT is primarily for children > between the ages of 2-7 years. We have been using PCIT with child > welfare clients (primarily neglect) since 2005 and have seen fairly good > success, especially when coupled with Motivational Interviewing and > regular clinical supervision. > > > Chanelle Carlin,M.A. Soc.Sci. > Vice President of Programs > Deaconess Children's Services > PO Box2629 > 4708 Dogwood Drive > Everett, WA 98213-0629 > Tel: (425) 259-0146 x 116 > Fax: (425) 252-7612 > www.deaconesschildren.org > > Deaconess Children*s Services is a champion of hope and opportunity for > children and their families, especially those in greatest need, > empowering them to BELIEVE in a life full of possibilities. > > > From:bounce-5543495-11712161@list.cornell.edu > [mailto:bounce-5543495-11712161@list.cornell.edu] On Behalf Of Graham > Vimpani > Sent: Wednesday, April 07, 2010 10:28 PM > To: child-maltreatment-research-l@list.cornell.edu > Subject: RE: Child Abuse Prevention Training > > > > Is there evidence that this program works in circumstances where there > has been significant physical abuse? i thought that PCIT (parent child > interaction therapy) had a demonstrable track record of success. > > Graham > > >>>> Farruggia Susan 08/04/2010 08:47 am >>>> >>>> > > Hi Gordon, > > You may want to consider Triple P. It's an evidenced-based parenting > program originally developed out of Australia but with international > dissemination, including the U.S. The website link is: > http://www.triplep-america.com/ > > Best wishes, > > Sue > > Sue Farruggia, Ph.D. > The University of Auckland > Schoolof Teaching, Learning and Development > Private Bag 92601, Symonds Street > Auckland 1150, New Zealand > 64 9 623 8899 ext.48326 > > > > From:bounce-5536431-12789975@list.cornell.edu > [mailto:bounce-5536431-12789975@list.cornell.edu] On Behalf Of gordon > capp > Sent: Wednesday, April 07, 2010 9:03 AM > To: Child-Maltreatment-Research-L@cornell.edu > Subject: Child Abuse Prevention Training > Hello all- > > I*m looking for a training resource to train 2-3 staff members in child > abuse prevention and interventions with children and families who have > experienced abuse and neglect. This would be a *trainer or trainers* > activity for us, with these staff members going on to train our entire > agency staff and community groups in both preventing child abuse and > intervening. > > Thanks in advance- > > Gordon Capp > Prevention Services > Community Family Guidance Center > Cerritos, CA > 562.924.5526 > > > > Attention: > This e-mail is privileged and confidential. If you are not the > intended recipient please delete the message and notify the sender. > Any views or opinions presented are solely those of the author. > This e-mail message has been scanned and cleared by MailMarshal- > www.marshalsoftware.com ( http://www.marshalsoftware.com/ ) > Attention: > This e-mail is privileged and confidential. If you are not the > intended recipient please delete the message and notify the sender. > Any views or opinions presented are solely those of the author. > > This e-mail message has been scanned and cleared by MailMarshal - > www.marshalsoftware.com ( http://www.marshalsoftware.com/ ) > > ---------------------------------------------------------------------- > > Subject: RE: Child Abuse Prevention Training > From: K S > Date: Mon, 12 Apr 2010 06:56:44 -0700 (PDT) > X-Message-Number: 2 > > Hello, > > I am not sure if Dr. David Kolko's program, Abuse-Focused CBT has been mentioned yet, but it specifically focuses on child physical abuse/excessive corporal punishment. > > Sincerely, > Komal > > --- On Mon, 4/12/10, Graham Vimpani wrote: > > From: Graham Vimpani > Subject: RE: Child Abuse Prevention Training > To: "'Child Maltreatment Researchers'" > Date: Monday, April 12, 2010, 7:44 AM > > > > > #yiv436891657 v\00003a* { > } > #yiv436891657 o\00003a* { > } > #yiv436891657 w\00003a* { > } > #yiv436891657 .shape { > } > > > #yiv436891657 st1\00003a* { > } > > > _filtered #yiv436891657 { > font-family:System;} > _filtered #yiv436891657 { > font-family:Tahoma;} > _filtered #yiv436891657 { > font-family:Calibri;} > _filtered #yiv436891657 { > font-family:Microsoft Sans Serif;} > _filtered #yiv436891657 { > font-family:Lucida Handwriting;} > _filtered #yiv436891657 {margin:1.0in 1.0in 1.0in 1.0in;} > #yiv436891657 A:link { > } > #yiv436891657 SPAN.MSOHYPERLINK { > } > #yiv436891657 A:visited { > } > #yiv436891657 SPAN.MSOHYPERLINKFOLLOWED { > } > #yiv436891657 P.MsoNormal { > FONT-SIZE:11pt;MARGIN:0in 0in 0pt;FONT-FAMILY:Calibri;} > #yiv436891657 LI.MsoNormal { > FONT-SIZE:11pt;MARGIN:0in 0in 0pt;FONT-FAMILY:Calibri;} > #yiv436891657 DIV.MsoNormal { > FONT-SIZE:11pt;MARGIN:0in 0in 0pt;FONT-FAMILY:Calibri;} > #yiv436891657 A:link { > COLOR:blue;TEXT-DECORATION:underline;} > #yiv436891657 SPAN.MsoHyperlink { > COLOR:blue;TEXT-DECORATION:underline;} > #yiv436891657 A:visited { > COLOR:purple;TEXT-DECORATION:underline;} > #yiv436891657 SPAN.MsoHyperlinkFollowed { > COLOR:purple;TEXT-DECORATION:underline;} > #yiv436891657 P.MsoAutoSig { > FONT-SIZE:12pt;MARGIN:0in 0in 0pt;FONT-FAMILY:"Times New Roman";} > #yiv436891657 LI.MsoAutoSig { > FONT-SIZE:12pt;MARGIN:0in 0in 0pt;FONT-FAMILY:"Times New Roman";} > #yiv436891657 DIV.MsoAutoSig { > FONT-SIZE:12pt;MARGIN:0in 0in 0pt;FONT-FAMILY:"Times New Roman";} > #yiv436891657 P { > FONT-SIZE:12pt;MARGIN-LEFT:0in;MARGIN-RIGHT:0in;FONT-FAMILY:"Times New Roman";} > #yiv436891657 SPAN.EmailStyle17 { > COLOR:windowtext;FONT-FAMILY:Calibri;} > #yiv436891657 SPAN.EmailStyle20 { > COLOR:navy;FONT-FAMILY:Arial;} > #yiv436891657 DIV.Section1 { > } > > I know Triple P very well Susan, but the study showed a lower rate of increase in child maltreatment rates in the intervention counties compared to the control counties, and still does not address my question with respect to its use in families where maltreatment has already occurred, where I have yet to see evidence of effectiveness. > Graham > > >>>> Farruggia Susan 12/04/2010 08:26 am >>> >>>> > > Triple P is a multi-level program with effectiveness demonstrated at all levels, including for child maltreatment. The CDC recently funded a major trial in South Carolina in which country rates of maltreatment were reduced. > > > > From: bounce-5548407-12789975@list.cornell.edu [mailto:bounce-5548407-12789975@list.cornell.edu] On Behalf Of Chanelle M. Carlin > Sent: Friday, April 09, 2010 3:38 AM > To: Child Maltreatment Researchers > Subject: RE: Child Abuse Prevention Training > > > > > PCIT does have a proven track record in these circumstances, assuming that the abuse has stopped and parents are willing to make real changes in their parenting. Also, evidence for PCIT is primarily for children between the ages of 2-7 years. We have been using PCIT with child welfare clients (primarily neglect) since 2005 and have seen fairly good success, especially when coupled with Motivational Interviewing and regular clinical supervision. > > > Chanelle Carlin, M.A. Soc.Sci. > Vice President of Programs > Deaconess Children's Services > PO Box 2629 > 4708 Dogwood Drive > Everett, WA 98213-0629 > Tel: (425) 259-0146 x 116 > Fax: (425) 252-7612 > www.deaconesschildren.org > > Deaconess Childrens Services is a champion of hope and opportunity for children and their families, especially those in greatest need, empowering them to BELIEVE in a life full of possibilities. > > > > > From: bounce-5543495-11712161@list.cornell.edu [mailto:bounce-5543495-11712161@list.cornell.edu] On Behalf Of Graham Vimpani > Sent: Wednesday, April 07, 2010 10:28 PM > To: child-maltreatment-research-l@list.cornell.edu > Subject: RE: Child Abuse Prevention Training > > > Is there evidence that this program works in circumstances where there has been significant physical abuse? i thought that PCIT (parent child interaction therapy) had a demonstrable track record of success. > > Graham > > >>>> Farruggia Susan 08/04/2010 08:47 am >>> >>>> > Hi Gordon, > > You may want to consider Triple P. It's an evidenced-based parenting program originally developed out of Australia but with international dissemination, including the U.S. The website link is: http://www.triplep-america.com/ > > Best wishes, > > Sue > > Sue Farruggia, Ph.D. > The University of Auckland > School of Teaching, Learning and Development > Private Bag 92601, Symonds Street > Auckland 1150, New Zealand > 64 9 623 8899 ext.48326 > > > > > > From: bounce-5536431-12789975@list.cornell.edu [mailto:bounce-5536431-12789975@list.cornell.edu] On Behalf Of gordon capp > Sent: Wednesday, April 07, 2010 9:03 AM > To: Child-Maltreatment-Research-L@cornell.edu > Subject: Child Abuse Prevention Training > Hello all- > > Im looking for a training resource to train 2-3 staff members in child abuse prevention and interventions with children and families who have experienced abuse and neglect. This would be a trainer or trainers activity for us, with these staff members going on to train our entire agency staff and community groups in both preventing child abuse and intervening. > > Thanks in advance- > > Gordon Capp > Prevention Services > Community Family Guidance Center > Cerritos, CA > 562.924.5526 > > > > > > Attention: > This e-mail is privileged and confidential. If you are not the > intended recipient please delete the message and notify the sender. > Any views or opinions presented are solely those of the author. > This e-mail message has been scanned and cleared by MailMarshal - www.marshalsoftware.com > > > > > Attention: > This e-mail is privileged and confidential. If you are not the > intended recipient please delete the message and notify the sender. > Any views or opinions presented are solely those of the author. > > This e-mail message has been scanned and cleared by MailMarshal - www.marshalsoftware.com > > > > > > > > --- > > END OF DIGEST > > >

The Bay Area Social Services Consortium at UC Berkeley conducted an extensive literature review on the outcomes of 58 parent education programs with families determined to be at-risk of child maltreatment and/or abusive or neglectful. The report, "Assessing Parent Education Programs for Families Involved with Child Welfare Services: Evidence and Implications," is located at http://www.bassc.net/html/research/projects_details.html More studies have come out since the 2006 publication. This report may be a helpful starting point in your search. -- Michelle A. Johnson, Ph.D., MSW Assistant Professor UCLA School of Public Affairs, Department of Social Welfare 3250 Public Affairs Building, Box 951656 Los Angeles, CA 90095-1656 Office: (310) 825-9661 Fax: (310) 206-7564 E-mail: majucla.edu Child Maltreatment Researchers digest wrote: > CHILD-MALTREATMENT-RESEARCH-L Digest for Monday, April 12, 2010. > > 1. RE: Child Abuse Prevention Training > 2. RE: Child Abuse Prevention Training > > ---------------------------------------------------------------------- > > Subject: RE: Child Abuse Prevention Training > From: "Graham Vimpani" > Date: Mon, 12 Apr 2010 21:44:13 +1000 > X-Message-Number: 1 > > I know Triple P very well Susan, but the study showed a lower rate of > increase in child maltreatment rates in the intervention counties > compared to the control counties, and still does not address my question > with respect to its use in families where maltreatment has already > occurred, where I have yet to see evidence of effectiveness. > Graham > > >>>> Farruggia Susan 12/04/2010 08:26 am >>>> >>>> > Triple P is a multi-level program with effectiveness demonstrated at > all levels, including for child maltreatment. The CDC recently funded a > major trial in South Carolina in which country rates of maltreatment > were reduced. > From: bounce-5548407-12789975list.cornell.edu > [mailto:bounce-5548407-12789975list.cornell.edu] On Behalf Of > Chanelle M. Carlin > Sent: Friday, April 09, 2010 3:38 AM > To: Child Maltreatment Researchers > Subject: RE: Child Abuse Prevention Training > > > PCIT does have a proven track record in these circumstances, assuming > that the abuse has stopped and parents are willing to make real changes > in their parenting. Also, evidence for PCIT is primarily for children > between the ages of 2-7 years. We have been using PCIT with child > welfare clients (primarily neglect) since 2005 and have seen fairly good > success, especially when coupled with Motivational Interviewing and > regular clinical supervision. > > > Chanelle Carlin,M.A. Soc.Sci. > Vice President of Programs > Deaconess Children's Services > PO Box2629 > 4708 Dogwood Drive > Everett, WA 98213-0629 > Tel: (425) 259-0146 x 116 > Fax: (425) 252-7612 > www.deaconesschildren.org > > Deaconess Children*s Services is a champion of hope and opportunity for > children and their families, especially those in greatest need, > empowering them to BELIEVE in a life full of possibilities. > > > From:bounce-5543495-11712161list.cornell.edu > [mailto:bounce-5543495-11712161list.cornell.edu] On Behalf Of Graham > Vimpani > Sent: Wednesday, April 07, 2010 10:28 PM > To: child-maltreatment-research-llist.cornell.edu > Subject: RE: Child Abuse Prevention Training > > > > Is there evidence that this program works in circumstances where there > has been significant physical abuse? i thought that PCIT (parent child > interaction therapy) had a demonstrable track record of success. > > Graham > > >>>> Farruggia Susan 08/04/2010 08:47 am >>>> >>>> > > Hi Gordon, > > You may want to consider Triple P. It's an evidenced-based parenting > program originally developed out of Australia but with international > dissemination, including the U.S. The website link is: > http://www.triplep-america.com/ > > Best wishes, > > Sue > > Sue Farruggia, Ph.D. > The University of Auckland > Schoolof Teaching, Learning and Development > Private Bag 92601, Symonds Street > Auckland 1150, New Zealand > 64 9 623 8899 ext.48326 > > > > From:bounce-5536431-12789975list.cornell.edu > [mailto:bounce-5536431-12789975list.cornell.edu] On Behalf Of gordon > capp > Sent: Wednesday, April 07, 2010 9:03 AM > To: Child-Maltreatment-Research-Lcornell.edu > Subject: Child Abuse Prevention Training > Hello all- > > I*m looking for a training resource to train 2-3 staff members in child > abuse prevention and interventions with children and families who have > experienced abuse and neglect. This would be a *trainer or trainers* > activity for us, with these staff members going on to train our entire > agency staff and community groups in both preventing child abuse and > intervening. > > Thanks in advance- > > Gordon Capp > Prevention Services > Community Family Guidance Center > Cerritos, CA > 562.924.5526 > > > > Attention: > This e-mail is privileged and confidential. If you are not the > intended recipient please delete the message and notify the sender. > Any views or opinions presented are solely those of the author. > This e-mail message has been scanned and cleared by MailMarshal- > www.marshalsoftware.com ( http://www.marshalsoftware.com/ ) > Attention: > This e-mail is privileged and confidential. If you are not the > intended recipient please delete the message and notify the sender. > Any views or opinions presented are solely those of the author. > > This e-mail message has been scanned and cleared by MailMarshal - > www.marshalsoftware.com ( http://www.marshalsoftware.com/ ) > > ---------------------------------------------------------------------- > > Subject: RE: Child Abuse Prevention Training > From: K S > Date: Mon, 12 Apr 2010 06:56:44 -0700 (PDT) > X-Message-Number: 2 > > Hello, > > I am not sure if Dr. David Kolko's program, Abuse-Focused CBT has been mentioned yet, but it specifically focuses on child physical abuse/excessive corporal punishment. > > Sincerely, > Komal > > --- On Mon, 4/12/10, Graham Vimpani wrote: > > From: Graham Vimpani > Subject: RE: Child Abuse Prevention Training > To: "'Child Maltreatment Researchers'" > Date: Monday, April 12, 2010, 7:44 AM > > > > > #yiv436891657 v\00003a* { > } > #yiv436891657 o\00003a* { > } > #yiv436891657 w\00003a* { > } > #yiv436891657 .shape { > } > > > #yiv436891657 st1\00003a* { > } > > > _filtered #yiv436891657 { > font-family:System;} > _filtered #yiv436891657 { > font-family:Tahoma;} > _filtered #yiv436891657 { > font-family:Calibri;} > _filtered #yiv436891657 { > font-family:Microsoft Sans Serif;} > _filtered #yiv436891657 { > font-family:Lucida Handwriting;} > _filtered #yiv436891657 {margin:1.0in 1.0in 1.0in 1.0in;} > #yiv436891657 A:link { > } > #yiv436891657 SPAN.MSOHYPERLINK { > } > #yiv436891657 A:visited { > } > #yiv436891657 SPAN.MSOHYPERLINKFOLLOWED { > } > #yiv436891657 P.MsoNormal { > FONT-SIZE:11pt;MARGIN:0in 0in 0pt;FONT-FAMILY:Calibri;} > #yiv436891657 LI.MsoNormal { > FONT-SIZE:11pt;MARGIN:0in 0in 0pt;FONT-FAMILY:Calibri;} > #yiv436891657 DIV.MsoNormal { > FONT-SIZE:11pt;MARGIN:0in 0in 0pt;FONT-FAMILY:Calibri;} > #yiv436891657 A:link { > COLOR:blue;TEXT-DECORATION:underline;} > #yiv436891657 SPAN.MsoHyperlink { > COLOR:blue;TEXT-DECORATION:underline;} > #yiv436891657 A:visited { > COLOR:purple;TEXT-DECORATION:underline;} > #yiv436891657 SPAN.MsoHyperlinkFollowed { > COLOR:purple;TEXT-DECORATION:underline;} > #yiv436891657 P.MsoAutoSig { > FONT-SIZE:12pt;MARGIN:0in 0in 0pt;FONT-FAMILY:"Times New Roman";} > #yiv436891657 LI.MsoAutoSig { > FONT-SIZE:12pt;MARGIN:0in 0in 0pt;FONT-FAMILY:"Times New Roman";} > #yiv436891657 DIV.MsoAutoSig { > FONT-SIZE:12pt;MARGIN:0in 0in 0pt;FONT-FAMILY:"Times New Roman";} > #yiv436891657 P { > FONT-SIZE:12pt;MARGIN-LEFT:0in;MARGIN-RIGHT:0in;FONT-FAMILY:"Times New Roman";} > #yiv436891657 SPAN.EmailStyle17 { > COLOR:windowtext;FONT-FAMILY:Calibri;} > #yiv436891657 SPAN.EmailStyle20 { > COLOR:navy;FONT-FAMILY:Arial;} > #yiv436891657 DIV.Section1 { > } > > I know Triple P very well Susan, but the study showed a lower rate of increase in child maltreatment rates in the intervention counties compared to the control counties, and still does not address my question with respect to its use in families where maltreatment has already occurred, where I have yet to see evidence of effectiveness. > Graham > > >>>> Farruggia Susan 12/04/2010 08:26 am >>> >>>> > > Triple P is a multi-level program with effectiveness demonstrated at all levels, including for child maltreatment. The CDC recently funded a major trial in South Carolina in which country rates of maltreatment were reduced. > > > > From: bounce-5548407-12789975list.cornell.edu [mailto:bounce-5548407-12789975list.cornell.edu] On Behalf Of Chanelle M. Carlin > Sent: Friday, April 09, 2010 3:38 AM > To: Child Maltreatment Researchers > Subject: RE: Child Abuse Prevention Training > > > > > PCIT does have a proven track record in these circumstances, assuming that the abuse has stopped and parents are willing to make real changes in their parenting. Also, evidence for PCIT is primarily for children between the ages of 2-7 years. We have been using PCIT with child welfare clients (primarily neglect) since 2005 and have seen fairly good success, especially when coupled with Motivational Interviewing and regular clinical supervision. > > > Chanelle Carlin, M.A. Soc.Sci. > Vice President of Programs > Deaconess Children's Services > PO Box 2629 > 4708 Dogwood Drive > Everett, WA 98213-0629 > Tel: (425) 259-0146 x 116 > Fax: (425) 252-7612 > www.deaconesschildren.org > > Deaconess Childrens Services is a champion of hope and opportunity for children and their families, especially those in greatest need, empowering them to BELIEVE in a life full of possibilities. > > > > > From: bounce-5543495-11712161list.cornell.edu [mailto:bounce-5543495-11712161list.cornell.edu] On Behalf Of Graham Vimpani > Sent: Wednesday, April 07, 2010 10:28 PM > To: child-maltreatment-research-llist.cornell.edu > Subject: RE: Child Abuse Prevention Training > > > Is there evidence that this program works in circumstances where there has been significant physical abuse? i thought that PCIT (parent child interaction therapy) had a demonstrable track record of success. > > Graham > > >>>> Farruggia Susan 08/04/2010 08:47 am >>> >>>> > Hi Gordon, > > You may want to consider Triple P. It's an evidenced-based parenting program originally developed out of Australia but with international dissemination, including the U.S. The website link is: http://www.triplep-america.com/ > > Best wishes, > > Sue > > Sue Farruggia, Ph.D. > The University of Auckland > School of Teaching, Learning and Development > Private Bag 92601, Symonds Street > Auckland 1150, New Zealand > 64 9 623 8899 ext.48326 > > > > > > From: bounce-5536431-12789975list.cornell.edu [mailto:bounce-5536431-12789975list.cornell.edu] On Behalf Of gordon capp > Sent: Wednesday, April 07, 2010 9:03 AM > To: Child-Maltreatment-Research-Lcornell.edu > Subject: Child Abuse Prevention Training > Hello all- > > Im looking for a training resource to train 2-3 staff members in child abuse prevention and interventions with children and families who have experienced abuse and neglect. This would be a trainer or trainers activity for us, with these staff members going on to train our entire agency staff and community groups in both preventing child abuse and intervening. > > Thanks in advance- > > Gordon Capp > Prevention Services > Community Family Guidance Center > Cerritos, CA > 562.924.5526 > > > > > > Attention: > This e-mail is privileged and confidential. If you are not the > intended recipient please delete the message and notify the sender. > Any views or opinions presented are solely those of the author. > This e-mail message has been scanned and cleared by MailMarshal - www.marshalsoftware.com > > > > > Attention: > This e-mail is privileged and confidential. If you are not the > intended recipient please delete the message and notify the sender. > Any views or opinions presented are solely those of the author. > > This e-mail message has been scanned and cleared by MailMarshal - www.marshalsoftware.com > > > > > > > > --- > > END OF DIGEST > > >