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Message ID: 8377
Date: 2010-02-04

Author:D F MCMAHON

Subject:RE: NIS-4 commentary

How is it discussion of racial disproportion so often omits Native American families? Some of the northern plains and prairie states, which seem to have high rates of out of home placement, also have significant populations of Native Americans--in particular, populations of Plains tribes whose first contact with settled whites occurred far more recently than in the eastern states or the southwest. Native American populations do not fully account for the higher numbers of kids in foster care, but the rate of disproportion can be extreme (e.g. in ND a Native American child is about 4 times as likely as a white child to enter foster care--while there is actually little or no racial disproportion for Hispanic children in foster care). Sheri McMahon > Date: Tue, 2 Feb 2010 19:30:02 -0800 > From: bneedell@berkeley.edu > To: child-maltreatment-research-l@list.cornell.edu > Subject: Re: NIS-4 commentary > > this is the question everyone will be asking > Race/ethnicity. Unlike previous NIS cycles, the NIS–4 found strong and > pervasive race differences in the incidence of maltreatment. In nearly > all cases, the rates of maltreatment for Black children were > significantly higher than those for White and Hispanic children. These > differences occurred under both definitional standards in rates of > overall maltreatment, overall abuse, overall neglect, and physical abuse > and for children with serious or moderate harm from their maltreatment. > They also occurred in the incidence of Harm Standard sexual abuse, in > the incidence of children who were inferred to be harmed by Harm > Standard maltreatment, and in Endangerment Standard rates for physical > neglect, emotional maltreatment, and children who were endangered but > not demonstrably harmed by their maltreatment. > > Todd McDonald wrote: > > thanks to everyone for their response regarding my question about race > > and ethnicity and culture. this list is such a valuable resource. > > related to NIS 4, is it true that this round identifed racial > > differences, whereas previous rounds did not. how should we > > understand or make sense of this finding? > > > > TM > > > > > > > > --- On *Tue, 2/2/10, Finkelhor, David //* wrote: > > > > > > From: Finkelhor, David > > Subject: NIS-4 commentary > > To: "child-maltreatment-research-L@cornell.edu" > > > > Date: Tuesday, February 2, 2010, 8:59 PM > > > > The Fourth National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect > > (NIS-4) just released its findings. > > > > > > > > It shows that in the period from 1993 to 2005/6 the annual rate of > > *sexual abuse* declined substantially (44% under the “Harm” > > Standard (HS) and 47% under the “Endangerment” Standard, a more > > liberal definition of child maltreatment). The rate of *physical > > abuse* declined as well (down 23% under the HS and 29% under the > > ES). The rate of *emotional abuse* declined 33% under the HS and > > 48% under the ES. Interestingly, the rate of *emotional neglect* > > ROSE 83% under the ES. > > > > > > > > These findings provide some additional perspectives on the > > question of whether various forms of child maltreatment have been > > declining since the early 1990s. > > > > > > > > First, it adds one more set of data showing declines in physical > > and sexual abuse during this period, adding to data from NCANDS, > > the National Crime Victimization Survey, and the Minnesota state > > student survey. You can see Finkelhor & Jones (2006) for a > > summary of this evidence. > > > > > > > > Second, it undercuts explanations for the decline in NCANDs data > > hypothesizing that CPS agencies have changed the way they count, > > define or investigate abuse. Since majority of the maltreatment > > cases in NIS are from community sentinels and the study uses > > rigorous definitions to evaluate each case, it shows that the > > decline is not about CPS agency behavior. > > > > > > > > Third, it undercuts explanations for the decline in NCANDs data > > that say that professionals have become more reluctant to report > > abuse to CPS. Sentinels could tell the NIS study about cases and > > not report them to CPS without any risk. The sentinels did fail to > > report a lot of abuse to CPS, > > > > but they also were encountering a lot less, as well. It still > > could be the case that professionals have gotten jaded and are not > > noticing as much physical and sexual abuse. > > > > > > > > Fourth, the NIS researchers do provide some support for the idea > > that neglect has failed to decline in NCANDs data at least in part > > because of an expansion of interest in children exposed to > > domestic violence and parental drug usage as forms of > > maltreatment. According to Andreas Sedlak in her presentation in > > San Diego the big reason for the expansion of neglect rates was > > sentinels seeing more children exposed to domestic violence and > > parental drug usage. She believes this is likely a change in > > awareness, especially since data from sources like NCVS show a > > decline in actual domestic violence. Note also if professionals > > have been willing to expand their notion of child maltreatment to > > include exposure to DV, this does not really jibe very well with > > the idea that they have gotten too jaded to notice as much > > physical and sexual abuse. It suggests if anything a greater > > vigilance. > > > > > > > > Overall, the NIS findings seem to me to contribute to the evidence > > that physical and sexual abuse did decline for an extended period > > from the early 1990s to the mid 2000s. > > > > > > > > You can find the executive summary and full NIS-4 report here: > > > > http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/opre/abuse_neglect/natl_incid/index.html > > > > > > Other discussions about the decline can be found here: > > > > http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/Trends/index.html > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > David Finkelhor > > Crimes against Children Research Center > > Family Research Laboratory > > Department of Sociology, University of New Hampshire > > Durham, NH 03824 > > Tel 603 862-2761* Fax 603 862-1122 > > email: david.finkelhor@unh.edu > > > > > > > > > > > > */_SAVE THE DATE_/* > > > > */International Family Violence and Child Victimization Research > > Conference /* > > > > *July 11th - 13^th 2010 - Sheraton Harborside Hotel, Portsmouth NH* > > > > *Submit your Abstract at www.unh.edu/frl/conferences* > > > > *Abstract Submission Deadline February 27th 2010* > > > > *E-mail: frl.conference@unh.edu > > * > > > > > > > > > > My new book has been released. Click on it for more details and to > > order. > > > > > > > > bookshot > > > > > > > > > > > > > > http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/ > > http://www.unh.edu/frl/ > > > > > > > > > > > > > > -- > Barbara Needell, MSW, PhD > Center for Social Services Research > University of California at Berkeley > > 510.290.6334 pcs > 510.296.4341 skype > 510.642.1893 campus > 510.642.1895 fax > > >

How is it discussion of racial disproportion so often omits Native American families? Some of the northern plains and prairie states, which seem to have high rates of out of home placement, also have significant populations of Native Americans--in particular, populations of Plains tribes whose first contact with settled whites occurred far more recently than in the eastern states or the southwest. Native American populations do not fully account for the higher numbers of kids in foster care, but the rate of disproportion can be extreme (e.g. in ND a Native American child is about 4 times as likely as a white child to enter foster care--while there is actually little or no racial disproportion for Hispanic children in foster care). Sheri McMahon > Date: Tue, 2 Feb 2010 19:30:02 -0800 > From: bneedellberkeley.edu > To: child-maltreatment-research-llist.cornell.edu > Subject: Re: NIS-4 commentary > > this is the question everyone will be asking > Race/ethnicity. Unlike previous NIS cycles, the NIS–4 found strong and > pervasive race differences in the incidence of maltreatment. In nearly > all cases, the rates of maltreatment for Black children were > significantly higher than those for White and Hispanic children. These > differences occurred under both definitional standards in rates of > overall maltreatment, overall abuse, overall neglect, and physical abuse > and for children with serious or moderate harm from their maltreatment. > They also occurred in the incidence of Harm Standard sexual abuse, in > the incidence of children who were inferred to be harmed by Harm > Standard maltreatment, and in Endangerment Standard rates for physical > neglect, emotional maltreatment, and children who were endangered but > not demonstrably harmed by their maltreatment. > > Todd McDonald wrote: > > thanks to everyone for their response regarding my question about race > > and ethnicity and culture. this list is such a valuable resource. > > related to NIS 4, is it true that this round identifed racial > > differences, whereas previous rounds did not. how should we > > understand or make sense of this finding? > > > > TM > > > > > > > > --- On *Tue, 2/2/10, Finkelhor, David //* wrote: > > > > > > From: Finkelhor, David > > Subject: NIS-4 commentary > > To: "child-maltreatment-research-Lcornell.edu" > > > > Date: Tuesday, February 2, 2010, 8:59 PM > > > > The Fourth National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect > > (NIS-4) just released its findings. > > > > > > > > It shows that in the period from 1993 to 2005/6 the annual rate of > > *sexual abuse* declined substantially (44% under the “Harm” > > Standard (HS) and 47% under the “Endangerment” Standard, a more > > liberal definition of child maltreatment). The rate of *physical > > abuse* declined as well (down 23% under the HS and 29% under the > > ES). The rate of *emotional abuse* declined 33% under the HS and > > 48% under the ES. Interestingly, the rate of *emotional neglect* > > ROSE 83% under the ES. > > > > > > > > These findings provide some additional perspectives on the > > question of whether various forms of child maltreatment have been > > declining since the early 1990s. > > > > > > > > First, it adds one more set of data showing declines in physical > > and sexual abuse during this period, adding to data from NCANDS, > > the National Crime Victimization Survey, and the Minnesota state > > student survey. You can see Finkelhor & Jones (2006) for a > > summary of this evidence. > > > > > > > > Second, it undercuts explanations for the decline in NCANDs data > > hypothesizing that CPS agencies have changed the way they count, > > define or investigate abuse. Since majority of the maltreatment > > cases in NIS are from community sentinels and the study uses > > rigorous definitions to evaluate each case, it shows that the > > decline is not about CPS agency behavior. > > > > > > > > Third, it undercuts explanations for the decline in NCANDs data > > that say that professionals have become more reluctant to report > > abuse to CPS. Sentinels could tell the NIS study about cases and > > not report them to CPS without any risk. The sentinels did fail to > > report a lot of abuse to CPS, > > > > but they also were encountering a lot less, as well. It still > > could be the case that professionals have gotten jaded and are not > > noticing as much physical and sexual abuse. > > > > > > > > Fourth, the NIS researchers do provide some support for the idea > > that neglect has failed to decline in NCANDs data at least in part > > because of an expansion of interest in children exposed to > > domestic violence and parental drug usage as forms of > > maltreatment. According to Andreas Sedlak in her presentation in > > San Diego the big reason for the expansion of neglect rates was > > sentinels seeing more children exposed to domestic violence and > > parental drug usage. She believes this is likely a change in > > awareness, especially since data from sources like NCVS show a > > decline in actual domestic violence. Note also if professionals > > have been willing to expand their notion of child maltreatment to > > include exposure to DV, this does not really jibe very well with > > the idea that they have gotten too jaded to notice as much > > physical and sexual abuse. It suggests if anything a greater > > vigilance. > > > > > > > > Overall, the NIS findings seem to me to contribute to the evidence > > that physical and sexual abuse did decline for an extended period > > from the early 1990s to the mid 2000s. > > > > > > > > You can find the executive summary and full NIS-4 report here: > > > > http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/opre/abuse_neglect/natl_incid/index.html > > > > > > Other discussions about the decline can be found here: > > > > http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/Trends/index.html > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > David Finkelhor > > Crimes against Children Research Center > > Family Research Laboratory > > Department of Sociology, University of New Hampshire > > Durham, NH 03824 > > Tel 603 862-2761* Fax 603 862-1122 > > email: david.finkelhorunh.edu > > > > > > > > > > > > */_SAVE THE DATE_/* > > > > */International Family Violence and Child Victimization Research > > Conference /* > > > > *July 11th - 13^th 2010 - Sheraton Harborside Hotel, Portsmouth NH* > > > > *Submit your Abstract at www.unh.edu/frl/conferences* > > > > *Abstract Submission Deadline February 27th 2010* > > > > *E-mail: frl.conferenceunh.edu > > * > > > > > > > > > > My new book has been released. Click on it for more details and to > > order. > > > > > > > > bookshot > > > > > > > > > > > > > > http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/ > > http://www.unh.edu/frl/ > > > > > > > > > > > > > > -- > Barbara Needell, MSW, PhD > Center for Social Services Research > University of California at Berkeley > > 510.290.6334 pcs > 510.296.4341 skype > 510.642.1893 campus > 510.642.1895 fax > > >