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Message ID: 8050
Date: 2009-01-24

Author:Faller, Kathleen

Subject:RE: Extended Forensic Interviews

The following references suggest the efficacy of forensics assessments in select cases:



Carnes, C., Wilson, C., & Nelson-Gardell, D. (1999). Extended forensic evaluation when child abuse is suspected: A model and preliminary data. Child Maltreatment, 4(3), 242-254.

Hershkowitz, I., Lanes, O., & Lamb, M. (2007, February). Exploring the disclosure of child sexual abuse with alleged victims and their parents. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31(2), 111-123.

Hershkowitz, I., Orbach, Y., Lamb, M., Sternberg, K., & Horowitz, D. (2006, July). Dynamics of forensic interviews with suspected abuse victims who do not disclose abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 30(7), 753-769.

Hershkowitz, I., Orbach, Y., Sternberg, K., Pipe, M., Lamb, M., & Horowitz, D. (2007). Suspected victims of abuse who do not make allegations: An analysis of their interactions with forensic interviewers. Child sexual abuse: Disclosure, delay, and denial (pp. 97-113). Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Hershkowitz, I., & Terner, A. (2007). The effects of repeated interviewing on children’s forensic statements of sexual abuse. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 31, 1131-1143.

La Rooy, D., & Lamb, M. (n.d). What happens when young witnesses are interviewed more than once. Forensic Update. http://www.larooy.net/FU.pdf.

La Rooy, D., Lamb, M., & Pipe, M.-E. (2008). Repeated Interviewing: A critical evaluation of the risks and potential benefits. In K. Kuehnle & M. Connell (Eds.) Child Sexual Abuse: Research, Evaluation, and Testimony for the Courts. London: John Wiley.





Kathleen Coulborn Faller, Ph.D., A.C.S.W., L.M.S.W.

Marion Elizabeth Blue Professor of Children and Families

Director of the Family Assessment Clinic

School of Social Work

The University of Michigan

kcfaller@umich.edu



The information contained in this message may be privileged and confidential and is intended only for the use of the named recipients. This communication is protected by federal law, both the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and 18 United States Code Section 2511. If the reader of this message is not the intended recipient, you are hereby notified that you have received this in error and that any review, dissemination, distribution, or copying of this message is strictly prohibited. If you have received this communication in error, please notify me immediately by phone (collect, if long distance) and destroy the

message as you would confidential information

________________________________________

From: bounce-3496094-6833631@list.cornell.edu [bounce-3496094-6833631@list.cornell.edu] On Behalf Of Eric Mart [emart@comcast.net]

Sent: Saturday, January 24, 2009 10:08 AM

To: Child Maltreatment Researchers

Subject: Re: Extended Forensic Interviews



Marc,



I don't disagree with your points. In fact, I have an article coming out in a forthcoming issue of The Journal of Psychiatry and Law that notes that a common mistake of investigators is not deviating from the protocol when there is good reason to do so. Example would be STDs, prior detailed statements to teachers etc. That's what I mean by a darn good reason. But there are CACs here in New England that routinely do 6-8 interviews (generally unrecorded) if the child does not make a disclosure under more mundane circumstances and sometimes even if the do make a disclosure. IMHO, this occurs when investigators stop using an hypothesis testing model and no longer see themselves as providing information to the fact finder but as the fact finder themselves. From a practical standpoint, I personally don't want to see a child sent back to their abuser because my methodology is unsupported nor do I want to spend a day on the stand being beaten over the head (figuratively) with the works of Ceci and Bruck and Lamb et al.



Eric G. Mart, Ph.D., ABPP (Forensic)

311 Highlander Way

Manchester, New Hampshire 03103

Ph. 603/626-0966not

Fax 603/622-7012

www.psychology-law.com

----- Original Message -----

From: Chaffin, Mark J. (HSC)

To: Child Maltreatment Researchers

Sent: Saturday, January 24, 2009 6:49 AM

Subject: RE: Extended Forensic Interviews



The usual "darn good reason" for extended interview is a case like the following--a) Significant but not totally conclusive evidence of abuse that can't be easily dismissed; and b) a child that gave a fairly unresponsive or vage initial interview that was inconclusive. The available research suggests that following an extended interview, interviews don't all come to the same conclusion--sometimes concluding that abuse was likely, sometimes that it was unlikely, and sometimes that things are still inconclusive. So, I think we can say that the protocols don't reflect some sort of automatic confirmation bias. Naturally, lacking crystal balls which might reveal the ultimate truth of the matter, its hard to say whether they get us to bedrock truth. In the research, as usual, one trades internal validity for external validity on this type of question. It is clear that extended interviews help interviewers make up their minds, if that has any value.



But the real question is, given the usual indicator circumstances for conducting an extended interview (enough evidence to create real worry that can't be dismissed, plus a vague or inconclusive initial interview) what are your options? For example--a six year old has gonnorhea, and when interviewed says very little at all. What do you do? Punt and make it someone else's problem? Say we'll never figure this one out and that its just inconclusive (not necessarily a bad option ultimately, but the question is are you really there yet)? Flip a coin? Give psychological tests or lie detectors or Ouija boards (heaven save us from this pseudoscience)? I would imagine that a carefully conducted extended interview might be the lesser of the evils here.





MC

________________________________

From: Eric G. Mart [emart@comcast.net]

Sent: Friday, January 23, 2009 2:04 PM

Subject: Re: Extended Forensic Interviews



Shelly,



I wouldn't do them without a darn good reason. I think it is important to remember that everyone doing CSA assessments is going to have their methodology and performance assessed with regard to the extent to which it comports with the Lamb et al NICHD protocol, and that does not included repeated interviewing. In the absence of any actually empirical proof that extended forensic assessment improves accurate recall without increasing errors, I'd avoid the practice.



Eric G. Mart, Ph.D., ABPP (Forensic)

311 Highlander Way

Manchester, New Hampshire 03103

Ph. 603/626-0966

Fax 603/622-7012

www.psychology-law.com

----- Original Message -----

From: Jackson, Shelly L *HS

To: 'Child Maltreatment Researchers'

Sent: Friday, January 23, 2009 8:13 AM

Subject: Extended Forensic Interviews



I would like ask the research and the practitioner communities to weigh in on a debate about extended forensic interviews (EFEs). We are in the midst of a debate in our community and I would like to hear what other communities are doing. I am familiar with the literature, but I’d like to hear researcher’s assessments of that research base. I’d also like to learn what practitioners in other communities are doing or thinking about in terms of EFEs. Thanks so much.



________________________________





The following references suggest the efficacy of forensics assessments in select cases:



Carnes, C., Wilson, C., & Nelson-Gardell, D. (1999). Extended forensic evaluation when child abuse is suspected: A model and preliminary data. Child Maltreatment, 4(3), 242-254.

Hershkowitz, I., Lanes, O., & Lamb, M. (2007, February). Exploring the disclosure of child sexual abuse with alleged victims and their parents. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31(2), 111-123.

Hershkowitz, I., Orbach, Y., Lamb, M., Sternberg, K., & Horowitz, D. (2006, July). Dynamics of forensic interviews with suspected abuse victims who do not disclose abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 30(7), 753-769.

Hershkowitz, I., Orbach, Y., Sternberg, K., Pipe, M., Lamb, M., & Horowitz, D. (2007). Suspected victims of abuse who do not make allegations: An analysis of their interactions with forensic interviewers. Child sexual abuse: Disclosure, delay, and denial (pp. 97-113). Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Hershkowitz, I., & Terner, A. (2007). The effects of repeated interviewing on children’s forensic statements of sexual abuse. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 31, 1131-1143.

La Rooy, D., & Lamb, M. (n.d). What happens when young witnesses are interviewed more than once. Forensic Update. http://www.larooy.net/FU.pdf.

La Rooy, D., Lamb, M., & Pipe, M.-E. (2008). Repeated Interviewing: A critical evaluation of the risks and potential benefits. In K. Kuehnle & M. Connell (Eds.) Child Sexual Abuse: Research, Evaluation, and Testimony for the Courts. London: John Wiley.





Kathleen Coulborn Faller, Ph.D., A.C.S.W., L.M.S.W.

Marion Elizabeth Blue Professor of Children and Families

Director of the Family Assessment Clinic

School of Social Work

The University of Michigan

kcfallerumich.edu



The information contained in this message may be privileged and confidential and is intended only for the use of the named recipients. This communication is protected by federal law, both the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and 18 United States Code Section 2511. If the reader of this message is not the intended recipient, you are hereby notified that you have received this in error and that any review, dissemination, distribution, or copying of this message is strictly prohibited. If you have received this communication in error, please notify me immediately by phone (collect, if long distance) and destroy the

message as you would confidential information

________________________________________

From: bounce-3496094-6833631list.cornell.edu [bounce-3496094-6833631list.cornell.edu] On Behalf Of Eric Mart [emartcomcast.net]

Sent: Saturday, January 24, 2009 10:08 AM

To: Child Maltreatment Researchers

Subject: Re: Extended Forensic Interviews



Marc,



I don't disagree with your points. In fact, I have an article coming out in a forthcoming issue of The Journal of Psychiatry and Law that notes that a common mistake of investigators is not deviating from the protocol when there is good reason to do so. Example would be STDs, prior detailed statements to teachers etc. That's what I mean by a darn good reason. But there are CACs here in New England that routinely do 6-8 interviews (generally unrecorded) if the child does not make a disclosure under more mundane circumstances and sometimes even if the do make a disclosure. IMHO, this occurs when investigators stop using an hypothesis testing model and no longer see themselves as providing information to the fact finder but as the fact finder themselves. From a practical standpoint, I personally don't want to see a child sent back to their abuser because my methodology is unsupported nor do I want to spend a day on the stand being beaten over the head (figuratively) with the works of Ceci and Bruck and Lamb et al.



Eric G. Mart, Ph.D., ABPP (Forensic)

311 Highlander Way

Manchester, New Hampshire 03103

Ph. 603/626-0966not

Fax 603/622-7012

www.psychology-law.com

----- Original Message -----

From: Chaffin, Mark J. (HSC)

To: Child Maltreatment Researchers

Sent: Saturday, January 24, 2009 6:49 AM

Subject: RE: Extended Forensic Interviews



The usual "darn good reason" for extended interview is a case like the following--a) Significant but not totally conclusive evidence of abuse that can't be easily dismissed; and b) a child that gave a fairly unresponsive or vage initial interview that was inconclusive. The available research suggests that following an extended interview, interviews don't all come to the same conclusion--sometimes concluding that abuse was likely, sometimes that it was unlikely, and sometimes that things are still inconclusive. So, I think we can say that the protocols don't reflect some sort of automatic confirmation bias. Naturally, lacking crystal balls which might reveal the ultimate truth of the matter, its hard to say whether they get us to bedrock truth. In the research, as usual, one trades internal validity for external validity on this type of question. It is clear that extended interviews help interviewers make up their minds, if that has any value.



But the real question is, given the usual indicator circumstances for conducting an extended interview (enough evidence to create real worry that can't be dismissed, plus a vague or inconclusive initial interview) what are your options? For example--a six year old has gonnorhea, and when interviewed says very little at all. What do you do? Punt and make it someone else's problem? Say we'll never figure this one out and that its just inconclusive (not necessarily a bad option ultimately, but the question is are you really there yet)? Flip a coin? Give psychological tests or lie detectors or Ouija boards (heaven save us from this pseudoscience)? I would imagine that a carefully conducted extended interview might be the lesser of the evils here.





MC

________________________________

From: Eric G. Mart [emartcomcast.net]

Sent: Friday, January 23, 2009 2:04 PM

Subject: Re: Extended Forensic Interviews



Shelly,



I wouldn't do them without a darn good reason. I think it is important to remember that everyone doing CSA assessments is going to have their methodology and performance assessed with regard to the extent to which it comports with the Lamb et al NICHD protocol, and that does not included repeated interviewing. In the absence of any actually empirical proof that extended forensic assessment improves accurate recall without increasing errors, I'd avoid the practice.



Eric G. Mart, Ph.D., ABPP (Forensic)

311 Highlander Way

Manchester, New Hampshire 03103

Ph. 603/626-0966

Fax 603/622-7012

www.psychology-law.com

----- Original Message -----

From: Jackson, Shelly L *HS

To: 'Child Maltreatment Researchers'

Sent: Friday, January 23, 2009 8:13 AM

Subject: Extended Forensic Interviews



I would like ask the research and the practitioner communities to weigh in on a debate about extended forensic interviews (EFEs). We are in the midst of a debate in our community and I would like to hear what other communities are doing. I am familiar with the literature, but I’d like to hear researcher’s assessments of that research base. I’d also like to learn what practitioners in other communities are doing or thinking about in terms of EFEs. Thanks so much.



________________________________