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Child-Maltreatment-Research-L (CMRL) List Serve

Database of Past CMRL Messages

Welcome to the database of past Child-Maltreatment-Research-L (CMRL) list serve messages. The table below contains all past CMRL messages (text only, no attachments) from Nov. 20, 1996 - December 22, 2017 and is updated quarterly.

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Message ID: 10287
Date: 2017-12-07

Author:Katie Steck

Subject:Re: materials on prosecuting cases

Hi Lisa, Here are a few research articles that may be helpful for the group in Guyana. Because of what we do at Defend Innocence with prevention work, many of these articles have to do with disclosure issues. Vagni, M., Maiorano, T., Pajardi, D., & Gudjonsson, G. (2015). Immediate and delayed suggestibility among suspected child victims of sexual abuse. Personality and Individual Differences, 79, 129–133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.02.007 Children suspected of being victims of sexual abuse are often interviewed by police, but little is known about the effects of sexual abuse on their suggestibility. The aim of this paper was to investigate differences in 'immediate' and 'delayed' suggestibility between children being investigated as suspected victims of sexual abuse and other children and to compare the suggestibility scores of children allegedly abused by a family member versus a person from outside the family. The participants were 180 children aged between 7 and 16. years, who had been subdivided into 'victim' and 'control' groups; each group being comprised of 90 children and matched for IQ. All children completed the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS 2) and a non-verbal IQ test. The children in the victim group scores significantly higher on Shift and Yield 2 than the control group, after controlling for memory capacity. Children abused by a family member coped significantly worse with interrogative pressure (high Shift) than those abused by a non-family member. Immediate suggestibility showed much stronger effects than delayed suggestibility. The findings suggest that sexually abused children are very vulnerable during questioning where there is interrogative pressure and those abused by a family member are even more vulnerable. McElvaney, R. (2015). Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse: Delays, Non-disclosure and Partial Disclosure. What the Research Tells Us and Implications for Practice. Child Abuse Review, 24, 159–169. https://doi.org/10.1002/car This paper reviews the research on disclosure of child sexual abuse with specific reference to delays in disclosing, non-disclosure and partial disclosure of experiences of child sexual abuse. Findings from large-scale national probability studies highlight the prevalence of both non-disclosure and delays in disclosure, while findings from small-scale qualitative studies portray the complexity, diversity and individuality of experiences. The possible explanations regarding why children are reluctant to disclose such experiences have significant implications for addressing the issue of child sexual abuse from the perspectives of child protection, legal and therapeutic professionals. The importance of understanding the dynamics of disclosure, in particular the needs of young people to maintain control over the disclosure process, the important role that peers play in this process, the responses of adults in both informal and formal networks, and the opportunities to tell, is key to helping young people speak more promptly about their experiences of sexual abuse. Lisak, D., Gardinier, L., Nicksa, S. C., & Cote, A. M. (2010). False Allegations of Sexual Assault: An Analysis of Ten Years of Reported Cases. Violence Against Women, 16(12), 1318–1334. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801210387747 One of the most controversial disputes affecting the discourse related to Violence Against Women is the dispute about the frequency of false allegations of sexual assault. In an effort to add clarity to the discourse, published research on false allegations is critiqued, and the results of a new study described. All cases (N = 136) of sexual assault reported to a major Northeastern university over a 10-year period are analyzed to determine the percentage of false allegations. Of the 136 cases of sexual assault reported over the 10-year period, 8 (5.9%) are coded as false allegations. These results, taken in the context of an examination of previous research, indicate that the prevalence of false allegations is between 2% and 10%. Collin-Vézina, D., De La Sablonnière-Griffin, M., Palmer, A. M., & Milne, L. (2015). A preliminary mapping of individual, relational, and social factors that impede disclosure of childhood sexual abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, 43, 123–134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2015.03.010 Uncovering the pathways to disclosures of child sexual abuse (CSA) and the factors influencing the willingness of victims to talk about the abuse is paramount to the development of powerful practice and policy initiatives. Framed as a long interview method utilizing a grounded theory approach to analyze data, the objective of the current study was to provide a preliminary mapping of the barriers to CSA disclosures through an ecological systemic lens, from a sample of 67 male and female CSA adult survivors, all of whom had recently received counselling services. The current project led to the identification of three broad categories of barriers that were each comprised of several subthemes, namely: Barriers from Within (internalized victim-blaming, mechanisms to protect oneself, and immature development at time of abuse); Barriers in Relation to Others (violence and dysfunction in the family, power dynamics, awareness of the impact of telling, and fragile social network); and Barriers in Relation to the Social World (labelling, taboo of sexuality, lack of services available, and culture or time period). This study points to the importance of using a broad ecological framework to understand the factors that inhibit disclosure of CSA, as barriers to disclosure do not constrain solely the victims. Results are discussed in light of their implications for research, prevention and intervention programs, and social policies and media campaigns, as the burden is on the larger community to create a climate of safety and transparency that makes the telling of CSA possible. Ullman, S. E. (2003). Social reactions to child sexual abuse disclosures: A critical review. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 12(1), 89–121. https://doi.org/10.1300/J070v12n01_05 Recent studies have examined disclosure of child sexual abuse to determine the correlates and consequences of telling others about this form of victimization. The present article reviews the current empirical literature on disclosure and reactions to adult survivors to assess what is known about the process of disclosure and whether telling others is therapeutic and leads to positive outcomes. Most studies assessing social reactions in detail have concerned adult survivors retrospectively reporting on their disclosures of child sexual abuse. Few empirical studies have been conducted in this area but research suggests that few victims tell anyone about child sexual abuse as children, and that the type of reactions to disclosure vary according to when disclosure occurs (childhood or adulthood), the extent and nature of the disclosure, and the person to whom one discloses. Clear evidence shows that negative social reactions are harmful to survivors' well-being, but better assessment of specific reactions and their effects are needed in theoretically-based studies to evaluate how these responses affect survivors' recovery in the context of other variables. Suggestions for future research on social reactions of others to adult survivors disclosing child sexual abuse are presented. In addition, http://www.disabilityabuse.org/ can be helpful for information on interviewing children with different kinds of disabilities. I hope the prosecutors find this useful, and it’s awesome to hear that movement is happening in Guyana to address child sexual abuse! If more information or other types of information are needed (e.g. effects of child sexual abuse, healing from child sexual abuse, risk factors, etc.), we are more than happy to share what resources we have found. Warmest regards, Katie Steck Education Coordinator |Defend Innocence Defendinnocence.org m. 801.243.4407 ksteck@youniquefoundation.org NOTICE: This E-mail and any of its attachments may contain proprietary information, which is privileged, confidential, or subject to copyright belonging to The Younique Foundation. This E-mail is intended solely for the use of the individual or entity to which it is addressed. If you are not the intended recipient of this E-mail, you are hereby notified that any dissemination, distribution, copying, or action taken in relation to the contents of and attachments to this E-mail is strictly prohibited and may be unlawful. If you have received this E-mail in error, please notify the sender immediately and permanently delete the original and any copy of this E-mail and any printout. From: on behalf of Lisa Fontes Reply-To: Child Maltreatment Researchers Date: Tuesday, December 5, 2017 at 4:54 PM To: Child Maltreatment Researchers Subject: materials on prosecuting cases Dear Colleagues, I am looking for: * webinar links * written materials * e-books and anything else you think might be helpful to share with colleague in Guyana (English speaking country in South America). They have just set up a child sexual abuse tribunal where they will be attempting to prosecute cases--some from as long as almost 20 years ago. Some more recent. Prosecutors who have relatively little experience with this kind of crime are suddenly doing a lot of cases and would benefit from materials. Please feel free to contact me alone at: LFontes@RCN.com Many thanks, Lisa Fontes, Ph.D.

Hi Lisa, Here are a few research articles that may be helpful for the group in Guyana. Because of what we do at Defend Innocence with prevention work, many of these articles have to do with disclosure issues. Vagni, M., Maiorano, T., Pajardi, D., & Gudjonsson, G. (2015). Immediate and delayed suggestibility among suspected child victims of sexual abuse. Personality and Individual Differences, 79, 129–133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.02.007 Children suspected of being victims of sexual abuse are often interviewed by police, but little is known about the effects of sexual abuse on their suggestibility. The aim of this paper was to investigate differences in 'immediate' and 'delayed' suggestibility between children being investigated as suspected victims of sexual abuse and other children and to compare the suggestibility scores of children allegedly abused by a family member versus a person from outside the family. The participants were 180 children aged between 7 and 16. years, who had been subdivided into 'victim' and 'control' groups; each group being comprised of 90 children and matched for IQ. All children completed the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS 2) and a non-verbal IQ test. The children in the victim group scores significantly higher on Shift and Yield 2 than the control group, after controlling for memory capacity. Children abused by a family member coped significantly worse with interrogative pressure (high Shift) than those abused by a non-family member. Immediate suggestibility showed much stronger effects than delayed suggestibility. The findings suggest that sexually abused children are very vulnerable during questioning where there is interrogative pressure and those abused by a family member are even more vulnerable. McElvaney, R. (2015). Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse: Delays, Non-disclosure and Partial Disclosure. What the Research Tells Us and Implications for Practice. Child Abuse Review, 24, 159–169. https://doi.org/10.1002/car This paper reviews the research on disclosure of child sexual abuse with specific reference to delays in disclosing, non-disclosure and partial disclosure of experiences of child sexual abuse. Findings from large-scale national probability studies highlight the prevalence of both non-disclosure and delays in disclosure, while findings from small-scale qualitative studies portray the complexity, diversity and individuality of experiences. The possible explanations regarding why children are reluctant to disclose such experiences have significant implications for addressing the issue of child sexual abuse from the perspectives of child protection, legal and therapeutic professionals. The importance of understanding the dynamics of disclosure, in particular the needs of young people to maintain control over the disclosure process, the important role that peers play in this process, the responses of adults in both informal and formal networks, and the opportunities to tell, is key to helping young people speak more promptly about their experiences of sexual abuse. Lisak, D., Gardinier, L., Nicksa, S. C., & Cote, A. M. (2010). False Allegations of Sexual Assault: An Analysis of Ten Years of Reported Cases. Violence Against Women, 16(12), 1318–1334. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801210387747 One of the most controversial disputes affecting the discourse related to Violence Against Women is the dispute about the frequency of false allegations of sexual assault. In an effort to add clarity to the discourse, published research on false allegations is critiqued, and the results of a new study described. All cases (N = 136) of sexual assault reported to a major Northeastern university over a 10-year period are analyzed to determine the percentage of false allegations. Of the 136 cases of sexual assault reported over the 10-year period, 8 (5.9%) are coded as false allegations. These results, taken in the context of an examination of previous research, indicate that the prevalence of false allegations is between 2% and 10%. Collin-Vézina, D., De La Sablonnière-Griffin, M., Palmer, A. M., & Milne, L. (2015). A preliminary mapping of individual, relational, and social factors that impede disclosure of childhood sexual abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, 43, 123–134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2015.03.010 Uncovering the pathways to disclosures of child sexual abuse (CSA) and the factors influencing the willingness of victims to talk about the abuse is paramount to the development of powerful practice and policy initiatives. Framed as a long interview method utilizing a grounded theory approach to analyze data, the objective of the current study was to provide a preliminary mapping of the barriers to CSA disclosures through an ecological systemic lens, from a sample of 67 male and female CSA adult survivors, all of whom had recently received counselling services. The current project led to the identification of three broad categories of barriers that were each comprised of several subthemes, namely: Barriers from Within (internalized victim-blaming, mechanisms to protect oneself, and immature development at time of abuse); Barriers in Relation to Others (violence and dysfunction in the family, power dynamics, awareness of the impact of telling, and fragile social network); and Barriers in Relation to the Social World (labelling, taboo of sexuality, lack of services available, and culture or time period). This study points to the importance of using a broad ecological framework to understand the factors that inhibit disclosure of CSA, as barriers to disclosure do not constrain solely the victims. Results are discussed in light of their implications for research, prevention and intervention programs, and social policies and media campaigns, as the burden is on the larger community to create a climate of safety and transparency that makes the telling of CSA possible. Ullman, S. E. (2003). Social reactions to child sexual abuse disclosures: A critical review. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 12(1), 89–121. https://doi.org/10.1300/J070v12n01_05 Recent studies have examined disclosure of child sexual abuse to determine the correlates and consequences of telling others about this form of victimization. The present article reviews the current empirical literature on disclosure and reactions to adult survivors to assess what is known about the process of disclosure and whether telling others is therapeutic and leads to positive outcomes. Most studies assessing social reactions in detail have concerned adult survivors retrospectively reporting on their disclosures of child sexual abuse. Few empirical studies have been conducted in this area but research suggests that few victims tell anyone about child sexual abuse as children, and that the type of reactions to disclosure vary according to when disclosure occurs (childhood or adulthood), the extent and nature of the disclosure, and the person to whom one discloses. Clear evidence shows that negative social reactions are harmful to survivors' well-being, but better assessment of specific reactions and their effects are needed in theoretically-based studies to evaluate how these responses affect survivors' recovery in the context of other variables. Suggestions for future research on social reactions of others to adult survivors disclosing child sexual abuse are presented. In addition, http://www.disabilityabuse.org/ can be helpful for information on interviewing children with different kinds of disabilities. I hope the prosecutors find this useful, and it’s awesome to hear that movement is happening in Guyana to address child sexual abuse! If more information or other types of information are needed (e.g. effects of child sexual abuse, healing from child sexual abuse, risk factors, etc.), we are more than happy to share what resources we have found. Warmest regards, Katie Steck Education Coordinator |Defend Innocence Defendinnocence.org m. 801.243.4407 ksteckyouniquefoundation.org NOTICE: This E-mail and any of its attachments may contain proprietary information, which is privileged, confidential, or subject to copyright belonging to The Younique Foundation. This E-mail is intended solely for the use of the individual or entity to which it is addressed. If you are not the intended recipient of this E-mail, you are hereby notified that any dissemination, distribution, copying, or action taken in relation to the contents of and attachments to this E-mail is strictly prohibited and may be unlawful. If you have received this E-mail in error, please notify the sender immediately and permanently delete the original and any copy of this E-mail and any printout. From: on behalf of Lisa Fontes Reply-To: Child Maltreatment Researchers Date: Tuesday, December 5, 2017 at 4:54 PM To: Child Maltreatment Researchers Subject: materials on prosecuting cases Dear Colleagues, I am looking for: * webinar links * written materials * e-books and anything else you think might be helpful to share with colleague in Guyana (English speaking country in South America). They have just set up a child sexual abuse tribunal where they will be attempting to prosecute cases--some from as long as almost 20 years ago. Some more recent. Prosecutors who have relatively little experience with this kind of crime are suddenly doing a lot of cases and would benefit from materials. Please feel free to contact me alone at: LFontesRCN.com Many thanks, Lisa Fontes, Ph.D.